Case Study #1b -
An Introduction to the Process of Writing Internet Style
21st Century Tools for Thought
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Mrs. Jones had a writing assignment coming up for her class. Her paper
was due towards the end of the semester. She needed to address the suitability
of American juvenile literature and other resources for some aspect of
She chose to focus on China and its art. She wished to compose her paper
while using the most current and powerful information systems at her disposal.
That is, she wanted her desktop computer to be of more use to her. She
needed to look for information and collect it. Then she wanted to write
in such an interesting manner that she would be sure to evoke a positive
and interested response from her professor and others. Also, she knew that
that her work would be stronger if she had a way to let others assess her
emerging ideas. Finally, she wished to publish her work in a way that others
who helped in her development could easily benefit from her study. To guide
her paper's development, she chose the CROP web site and its four stages
of problem solving: Look, Evoke, Assess and Publish. The process and problems
that she encounters are universal to a wide variety of composition activities.
Next, Mrs. Jones opens a word processor window and resizes the window.
The word processor window will hold the information she copies from the
Internet. When you work with more than one window, windows can be resized
so that they are overlapping. This means that some part of every application
window you are using is visible on the computer screen. If your screen
pointer can touch any part of any window, no matter how many windows are
in front of it, it will be brought to the front (e.g., top of the stack).
These windows are metaphors for pieces of paper. So, these computer windows
are like different pieces of paper. As long as you can see any corner or
part of a piece of paper, you can do the electronic equivalent of picking
it up and placing it on top so that you can work with the information in
that window. Mrs. Jones sets her two windows so that she can see big parts
of both her Internet (Netscape) window and her word processing window.
Which ever window she clicks on with her screen pointer will come to the
top. She brings the word processor window to the top or front.
To: Connect to the Internet using the Netscape Application.
To help work through her concerns, she found software that connected her
to the Internet. She also discovered that in different computer labs the
procedure to start an application varied. She asked the lab assistant to
get her started when things seemed too unfamiliar.
To: Reach the CROP site.
Once connected, she linked to the CROP web site. CROP is a set of online
and desktop resources for both personal problem solving and working with
groups of people in a team or teams to solve problems. Her needs at the
moment are personal to her paper. She reads the explanatory information
about the basic idea of CROP again just to review its basic design.
To: Make a Bookmark in Netscape.
Realizing that she will come to the CROP web site frequently, she makes
a bookmark to the site. Using this same computer, the bookmark will allow
her to return to this site with a single click at any time.
To: Find Higher Order Questions.
Knowing that a clear statement of the central question for her paper speeds
her work, she takes the link to the THINK branch and calls up and browses
a list of question formats and their definitions for higher order thinking:
recall, analysis, comparison and so forth. Comparison! That will work.
How does the juvenile literature on China compare with resources for students
found on the Internet? That's it. Further browsing reveals a wide variety
of resources for the higher order thinking activity expected of graduate
The material also provides a definition that reminds her that comparison
is about both similarities and differences. She will need to develop information
about both to excel with her comparisons. As she searches for current information
on China, she will look harder for information categories in which one
can more clearly make comparisons.
5. How To:
Now that her question has focused her efforts, she is ready to work on
answering this question. She clicks on the LEAP link. LEAP is an acronym
for a process: Look, Evoke, Assess, Publish. Each letter leads to a different
set of activities and tools. LEAP is a distillation of problem solving
processes in many fields.
To: Study Procedures in Problem Solving.
Mrs. Morris begins by Looking for information. She finds that it helps
to look at the phrases and words from many different fields of learning
which focus the process of looking for information. She calls up this LEAP
comparison table and scans it for concepts that will assist her looking.
While there, she notes the different terms that different fields use for
the activity of Looking for information. She finds this mental scaffolding
useful to consider as she works through the steps. Her preference is for
the simplified four term model under the writing process.
To: Make a Folder on a Diskette.
Knowing that she will be collecting information in a word processing file
and perhaps saving other files as well, Mrs. Jones makes a folder on her
diskette in which to place her collection of files. She can close and open
this window to her disk at any time. To remove her disk from the computer,
she would drag it to the trash can. This does not erase the disk. This
process only ejects it.
8. How To: Make a Word Processor File, Save it, and Place it.
There are many ways to get started. She chooses to do some brainstorming,
listing as many of her own ideas as she can. If she gets stuck, she knows
there are many other tricks for getting started:
Interview ideas ; UT-Austin's
A&M's analysis ; Princeton's
To: Find a University Web Site.
Mrs. Jones wants more direct contact with experts themselves, most notably
those with expertise in China. She has learned the critical advantage of
direct contact over reading an article on China. The answer to her question
may not be in the article, but the article cannot tell her that. However,
experts can quickly size up a situation and either indicate that they do
not know or restate the question so that they can provide a highly focused
response targeted to Mrs. Morris's needs. Further, they can ask questions
of Mrs. Jones. Stored media cannot do this this. The ability to open a
two-way channel of communication is what distinguishes connecting people
directly versus using different information media stored and accessed in
Using some of the search tools on the People Direct web page,
Mrs. Jones tried to find email for the American Ambassador to China but
failed. She decides to find a University with a strong program in the Pacific
area. As Stanford University is well known and is in a state bordering
the Pacific, she seeks its web address in the People Direct section of
CROP. Once she has found an email address she saves it for later. She does
not want to waste the experts time on trivial questions and wants to wait
until she is sure she knows he more difficult ones.
The topmost segment of the Look pyramid contains tools for directly
contacting human beings. This thought reminds her to also set a meeting
with the librarian to review any new source material that has come to the
library. They meet and conclude that they have several references for the
United States that will be useful in making comparisons but some the China
resources are a bit dated. She decides to go hunting for more current information.
As she looks for data and information, the pyramid icon and structure
of the web pages reminds her that information comes in different qualities.
That is, a variety of search tools are sorted and listed in a special order.
They are placed in rough order of the amount of human intelligence that
is available or used in the organizing and storing of the information.
Her strategy is to start at the top of the pyramid, and depending on how
well the searches go towards the top of the pyramid, she may or may not
need to work through to the bottom-most layer.
Throughout this process of information collection she must continually
weigh the quality of what she finds for truthfulness, currency, accuracy
To: Find Faculty Contact Information.
Having found a relevant University, she finds the name of a faculty member
who teaches about China, but this web page does not give his email address.
She copies into her China notes word processing file the information about
the expert she just found. She saves this file to the China Project folder
in her disk. She will return again and again to this word processor file
to add further information in the days ahead. She will be organizing the
file as the data in it grows.
To: Find and Save Email Data.
Given the information she has found, there is another way to proceed. Once
she knows his name, she returns to the Stanford home page and looks for
a Directory link. Following these links, she finds a place to enter his
name. When the computer system has looked up his email address and made
it visible, this email address and other contact information is also copied
to her word processor file.
She has now found a no-cost way to interact with a Professor at
Stanford University with a specialty in Chinese Art, and his email address.
Later, she will add the names of two or three more people on different
campuses as backup resource people.
To: Find a LISTSERV.
The Internet has also formed communities of people who trade email on topics
of interest. These developments are known as email conferences and come
in two forms, LISTSERVs and newsgroups. These will come in handy later
as further questions arise. When questions occur that stump her, she can
take her questions and using her own email account, send it to the email
Using search engines (e.g., databases available through the
Internet), she searches tens of thousands of these global communities.
First Mrs. Jones searches for LISTSERVs that discuss China. She notes that
help pages are available to teach her how to subscribe to a LISTSERV. In
the subscribing process she puts her name and email address on the conference
list of names. Then, any email sent to the conference is also sent to her
email account. She justifiably worries that this could flood her email
account if the conference gets very active. So, she does not join (e.g,
subscribe) now but saves the addresses in case of greater need.
To: Find a Newsgroup.
Using roughly the same path of links, she next searches for newsgroups.
For now, she collects contact and subscription information for the conferences.
She will have to carry out other steps later to actually see the email
being traded among those participating in the conference.
To: Organize with an Outline Processor
She adds all these addresses to her word processing file, China Notes,
and organizes them under various headings, such as Email Contacts and Email
Conferences. Later, she will contact or interact with the people she has
15. How To: Find Juvenile (Children's) Literature Online
The Library of Congress is the planet's largest library, but it
is but one of but thousands that you can access.
Other online resources are also available. A middle section of Look's Tool
Pyramid provides access to paper and other non-computer publications generally
found in libraries. These publications contain information approved by
committees and editors anxious to keep the reputation of their publication
in the highest regard. Mrs. Jones first looked for stories about China
at the juvenile literature level.
Major Libraries e.g., the Library of Congress.
and Use Telnet to Connect. Telnet is one of the original Internet applications
along with FTP applications and email. There is a version of Telnet that
works with any speed modem and nearly any vintage and brand of computer.
Netscape may be used to start up the Telnet program, but it is still independent
of Netscape and not necessary to run Netscape if you know the address of
your destination. In this case, the address you enter into telnet is locis.loc.gov
without any closing punctuation.
Up to Capture Data. There will be so much data as a result of this
activity that it is saved as its own file instead of copying the data into
her Notes word processing file. However, she will put the name of this
file in her notes.
the Library of Congress.
LOCIS and Telnet.
Online links can connect her to many libraries for which she can
search for juvenile and children's literature and the subject of China.
For now she is interested in books, at another time she use the links to
hunt for periodical articles. The references that she finds (e.g., citations)
are copied and saved and will later to edited to the proper bibliographic
format for this paper.
To: Find Quality Child-Rated Web Sites.
The lower level of the Look Pages' Tool Pyramid connects to resources that
are immediately available over the globe's computer network called the
Internet. This level provides the greatest quantity of information for
immediate access. But it can be of lower quality than the previous higher
levels of the pyramid. She will need to more critically analyze what she
finds here than in higher levels of this pyramid.
This bottom level in turn has its own prioritized layers. In fact,
it has its own pyramid structure. At the top of this section of the pyramid
are search engines (e.g., search systems) which contain reviews and ratings
of qualified web sites in their databases. This is called the refereed
sub-section. Mrs. Jones searches her favorite, Magellan, for sites with
four star ratings. She visits these links to see if they are truly appropriate
for students and then saves selected sites as bookmarks. If she needs even
more information she will use other web search tools further down in other
sub-sections, such as the Catalog and the Robot systems sub-sections.
To: Gather Further Email Addresses of Experts and Consultants
When visiting one of the sites, she discovers an interesting email address.
She adds it to her collection of experts in her China Notes word processing
18. Moving Bookmarks to Disk and Back
To: Save a Set of Bookmarks to Diskette.
To: Import/Restore a Set of Bookmarks from Diskette.
For every web page of value to her, Mrs. Jones continues to use
the bookmark feature. This stores the electronic addresses of these high
interest web pages as a list for quick later use. She can order this list
any way she likes and delete bookmarks which turn out to be of lesser value
as better ones are found. However, bookmarks can be deleted from the bookmark
list of her computer by others as easily as they can be added. Fortunately,
the bookmarks can be saved to a disk and later imported (added) back into
her web browser as she needs them. That way, she will always have her entire
collection of work available to restore any missing links. Further, her
bookmark file has useful information that she can readily share with others.
To: Search a Web Catalog Search System.
The web pages commercials are distracting, but she learns to ignore them
the same way she does with TV commercials. She searches Yahoo for a couple
Search a Web Robot based System
Next she searches a robot system, Lycos, but the immense number of references
is intimidating. She simply records the number of references and plans
to make more detailed searches if she needs further information. She makes
a mental note that searching for China plus something more specific based
on questions that emerge from her study would be of interest later.
A significant number of resources have now been collected. To better organize
her efforts, Mrs. Jones keeps a notebook for this paper. Returning to her
word processing file, China Notes, she adds a title, boldfaces and centers
it, adds the current date and prints it out. She uses the three-hole punch
then places this printout in her notebook.
To: Annotate a Netscape Bookmark.
She opens the bookmark file and annotates it briefly. She includes the
web page address in the annotation, so that when it prints, she and others
will be able to see the actual electronic addresses. In this way, others
can use her printouts, type in the addresses manually and arrive at the
same locations without needing to open her special bookmark file.
To: Save and Print Out Bookmarks.
Then, she also prints out her bookmarks on China. The printouts are three-hole
punched and inserted into the notebook. She compares this year's printout
of four star web sites with last year's and notes with satisfaction that
the list has grown significantly. However, she knew to expect that, given
the 10-20% a month growth and the rate of change of the information on
Mrs. Jones realizes that she must weigh the credibility and validity
of all her sources, but especially question those from the Internet and
its web pages: St.
Problem for Reflection: Mrs. Jones pauses to reflect frequently
on what she has found. She writes these reflections in her notebook for
the paper. The questions that emerge from this reflection set up later
activity. Answering her own questions deepens her understanding. At the
moment, she realizes that she does not know how to get the resources that
she is finding to a significant percentage of North American students.
Many of the books will not be in their libraries and/or they will not have
access to the Internet. She phrases this problem as a question and saves
it in her notebook for later reflection. She now realizes that access is
an important factor to consider in her comparison for this paper.
To: Find the Evoke section of LEAP
Using her bookmark to CROP she returns to its LEAP page. Having completed
many activities at the Look stage, Mrs. Jones is ready to move to another
phase of problem solving. She moves to the Evoke stage, the composition
phase. It is time for more complete compositions using the data she has
collected. Mrs. Jones has had her interest in learning more about China
raised significantly. That is, her research has evoked a greater interest
in China an in her question. Her challenge is now to compose in such a
way that her readers develop this same interest.
She looks over the set of tools in the Evoke section to remind herself
of a range of possibilities for composition. From this list of tools she
decides to continue to use the word processor she already knows and to
use a spreadsheet which she has begun to learn to use. The CROP site merely
reminds her of the tools available at the Evoke level. New application
ideas are continually being added at CROP. She may or may not use these
Evoke links. If she does use these links, she will also need to have the
application programs of this web page on her computer and to have used
the Options or Preferences menu to prepare her Web browser (e.g., Netscape,
Internet Explorer) to activate these applications on her computer. Otherwise,
she can use her computers standard operating system and start up applications
in more familiar ways.
25. How To: Use a Spreadsheet.
She does recognize that multicultural work places high emphasis on comparison.
She decides to experiment in determining how easily students could find
comparative data. Her professor had mentioned the CIA Fact Book. Further,
the rows and columns of a spreadsheet will be an excellent way to organize
ideas in tables for comparison. Further, it will introduce her to the use
of spreadsheet without the higher level of intimidation that immediate
mathematical activities will raise. The spreadsheet that she has available
may be different than the one that can be activated from the CROP site,
but that is not an issue. She merely finds and runs the spreadsheet of
her choice. The process is widely similar to many spreadsheet programs.
To: Modify Netscape to Run a Local Application.
If she chooses, she can set up her computer so that a click at the CROP
web site will start up that application on her desktop computer. Or she
could make her own web page of her favorite applications on her machine
and then create a bookmark to her applications web page. Either way, this
would eliminate a step in finding the application that she needs for their
work. But it is only an alternative, as she knows other more familiar ways
of starting up needed applications.
[#27 reserved for later additions.]
28. How To: Develop First Draft.
She begins this first draft of this paper by inserting her notes data in
a new word processing file which she will edit and change while she continues
to add to her notes file. She will return to her notes file again and again
to pull from it new bits of data that she has found and saved on her diskette.
To: Find the State's Curriculum Objective Requirements
As she types she realizes that she does not have a copy of the state's
requirements that address multicultural classroom activity. Needing to
review the state's requirements, she uses the link in CROP to bring up
the curriculum matrix and check out the details. After initial exploring,
she will find the third grade social studies curriculum page which addresses
the study of other cultures.
She will copy and paste the relevant, goals, objectives and competencies
into her Notes file. This collection of information then needs further
organization and development:
arguments. Scroll also to NU's section titled Documenting
Problem for Reflection: Mrs. Jones now knows that she can easily
find a large quantity of information on China. She has already begun to
answer an important part of her paper's question. Much of it though is
not in suitable form for many grade levels. How can she ever make such
a large quantity of information accessible to school students? She leaves
her reflective question in her notebook to ponder another time.
Feedback is a critical part of the problem solving and composing process.
Feedback can be achieved in several ways, both off and on the Internet.
Local Computer (Off the Net)
There are computer software tools that can run on your own local workstation
without a network connection. Use the spell check and grammar checker for
your word processor.
Ask others to help. Ask a friend to look over your composition. Visit
your campus Writing Center and in addition to working with the center staff,
check out their publications on writing.
Global Computer (On the Net)
Many ideas about revision and grammar inform her editing:
The Internet is also both a resource of publications and of people.
questions ; Rensselaer's
faults ; Paradigm's editing
and revision. For guidance on your writing style and grammar, see Strunk's
of Style Also, scroll to the National Writing Center's page and their
section on Grammar
There is also a new service called Criterion Online Writing Evaluation.
It allows students to get an instant score on writing samples they
submit. Our Perception online testing and
There are many methods for interacting with others through the Internet.
They can give you feedback on questions as they emerge, whether on the
subject of your paper or on the paper itself, such as the SUP (Still Unsolved
Problem) database or email conferences. The trick is to find those who
are interested in your topic. Mrs. Jones tries several approaches with
the email addresses that she collected from her prior research and stays
on the lookout for more contacts.
assessment software provides the user interface for Criterion, which
uses e-rater, ETS's proprietary automated essay scoring system. For
[The #30 is reserved for further development.]
31. How To: Organize for Interaction
She finds that email messages have a short "shelf life" on the Internet's
email conferences. Often but a few days will pass and then they will disappear
to make room for new messages. CROP's SUP database ensures that questions
and answers to interesting questions can remain in a stable location to
which she can direct others interested in her questions and to potentially
collect their responses in a place that others can easily read and follow
the discussion. She invites some of her email addressees to react to her
questions in the Still Unsolved Problem database.
She is, in effect, beginning to form her own study or problem
solving team. Using any computer linked to the Internet, she will connect
with CROP's Center for question sharing:
Her "teammates" can use these processes of adding and searching to enter
their own questions, read the questions of others and leave their own responses.
If they give themselves a team name ,they can quickly retrieve each others
questions. They can also invite experts to leave questions of interest
and responses at CROP in the SUP database.
She concludes that she has been given a simple way to create her own
specialized email conference in place of a newsgroup or a LISTSERV. Here,
her questions and the responses to them do not disappear overnight as with
a newsgroup. To keep them, she does not have to save them to a word processing
file as with a LISTSERV. She discovers that through this process she is
also providing an important community service. Articulating questions and
leaving a trail of responses and answers will some day be of use to others.
Mrs. Jones reflects that these questions, the research and the four
phase sequence itself are an important part of the writing process. In
many cases, this work provides the "question starters" for other writing
activity that could lead to other papers and hopefully even published articles
in the journals she has been reading.
32. How To: Use Email Conferences
As the earlier searching showed, there are tens of thousands of
electronic mail conferences. Though a few email conferences are primarily
made up of school children, most are electronic conversations among adults.
Mrs. Jones uses them for her professional level needs, to keep as current
as possible on various topics and to have a ready source of expertise.
But she sees problems for school use of global email conferences as a whole
because she can never tell when adult language, adult attached images and
unacceptable writing behavior will flare up in online email. This is not
to say that there are not age-appropriate moderated email conferences,
but as a general rule, any classroom general classroom use of email conferences
requires highly controlled access and continuous monitoring for appropriate
dialog. Mrs. Jones was pleased to hear in class that she can also work
with her local Internet Service Provider to create an online email conference
that will only allow her students and others to whom she has given specific
permission to participate if she would like to pursue this option.
One easily reached form of email conference is the newsgroup. Earlier
Mrs. Jones used search systems to discover the newsgroup whose name is
and saved this data in her China notes. Working with newsgroups requires
some flexibility. The procedures for sending and reading email vary from
one web browser to another. Further, the software from any one browser
company changes, sometimes significantly, with each new version of the
Mrs. Jones uses several basic procedures in accessing newsgroups.
To: Send an Email Attachment.
Having completed many parts of the first draft of her paper, she wants
to share it with an email correspondent who has a great interest in China
and has actually traveled there. She will use her email system to send
her paper as an attachment to an email message. But she must make sure
that her friend is using the same application as the attachment she sends
or her friend will not be able to read it. In the same way she attached
this word processing document, she can also attach multimedia files such
as drawings, pictures, sound and video clips. Her friend can respond in
minutes or in a couple of days. This same technique works just as well
in newsgroup messaging.
To: Email a Newsgroup with a New Topic.
She also sends a new news message to the K12.ed.soc-studies
newsgroup that her paper is available for any would that would like to
see her current draft. In doing so, she finds another way to enter a newsgroup.
She tells this email community that she can also fax it to the first two
or three who offer to critique it, but that she does not yet know how to
make her own web pages so that as many as would like to can download it
for with minimal effort.
Her return email over the next week generated several new resources
and a couple of excellent suggestions. They also generated the email addresses
of two Chinese students that would be willing to trade email with her.
These addresses are copied into her electronic notebook for future use.
These interactions lead her to shift again to the Evoke stage of problem
solving for additional composition.
Problems for Reflection Email conferences, particularly newsgroups,
vary from the depraved to the enlightened, from gossip to emergency assistance
in times of disaster. Even if she does not teach her students to explore
newsgroups, some will find the the seamier areas of this electronic email.
How should she prepare students to handle strong adult material which they
should not be encountering? To what degree should she seek to censor student
access in and out of school? The new power she is discovering has inevitably
revealed new problems she had not considered. She decides to work these
reflections into her essay as well.
To share your work with others is to publish. In this sense, printing her
final draft and handing in this assignment is a form of publishing. Mrs.
Jones also realizes through this work that there other audiences that are
important to her and to her profession. These audiences could benefit from
another way to share in this work. She wants to look into ways in which
she can quickly and inexpensively share her paper with others, classroom
teachers, researchers and parents in her school. She arranges a meeting
with the district computer coordinator and asks if her paper could become
web pages for others to see use a web server. If possible she would like
the quickest and simplest way to turn her finished paper into a web page
visible across the Internet. Then she can simply give others its Web page
How To: Make a Simple Web Page
Her district computer coordinator asks her to attend a workshop that will
take her through very simple steps to do this quickly. Once learned, this
process actually takes but a matter of minutes. This workshop will also
point out other steps that will allow her to improve the look, appeal and
readability of her web pages in time and with more experience. Once the
web pages are ready, they must be placed on a computer that runs software
called web server software. This application will distribute or disseminate
them on request from others on the Internet as they tap links on their
How To: Use Fetch to Transfer Files between Computers
A computer that distributes (publishes) web pages is a web server. The
computer coordinator showed her workshop a list of several institutions
that are interested in supporting teachers that wish to share their lesson
and unit plans for free. These range from the state department of public
instruction to agencies with grants to support education to the nearby
university and community college to the school district superintendent
who is looking into creating a web server that will be run by their school
The workshop leader takes Mrs. Jones through the process of transferring
(uploading) a file using a Macintosh application called Fetch. On computers
running Windows operating system software, they might use FS_FTP. Once
the file is transferred, the webmaster of the web server computer will
make a new link from existing web pages to the new document on a web page
the the webmaster manages or Mrs. Jones can create her own home page with
a link to her paper.
She decides to buy a modem and an Internet account for her home to make
this work more convenient. Her Internet Service Provider makes web page
file space available for a small monthly fee. She can then send her changes
and updates directly to her web page over the telephone line from home
and have them take effect immediately.
How To: Copy a Disk.
There are of course simpler forms of publishing including the use of a
printer to make a printed copy and "sneakernet" to carry a paper copy down
the hall to another teacher. A faster form of local information distribution
is to make many copies of her diskette, as her resources files are as valuable
as her paper. Mrs. Jones made a copy of her disk with the paper and related
files and sent her disk to a neighboring city with an educational agency
that has a grant to support educational projects in her area. She also
sent email to journal publisher who requested a copy of the disk to consider
it for publication.
Both institutions chose to put her work online on their web sites. That
is, they put her paper on their computers and made a link from their pages
to her work. When the webmasters of those sites replied to her that the
task was completed, they also gave her the electronic address of her paper,
known as its URL. When she had received this data, she asked her building
principal to include the electronic address or location of her unit plan
in an article to her colleagues in the building and parents for the school
newsletter so that they could read her material as well without running
up duplicating costs.
She also sent email to friends who had helped with her unit and to many
in her k12.ed.soc-studies newsgroup. She informed them all of the several
electronic locations of her web pages. Mrs. Jones is sure that ready access
to her paper by those with whom she interacts will yield even more ideas
for improving it should she wish to pursue it.
All this interest then led her to thinking about other older forms of
publication. Many publishers, journal and magazine editors, and writer's
groups provide contact information, publication requirements and more through
the Internet. Some are:
Problems for Reflection The idea of creating linked web pages
puzzles Mrs. Jones. The links on any given web page connect with the web
pages of others from around the world. It is a skill within the range of
her students to learn and some already have. The writing process that she
teaches has several stages: pre-writing, writing, editing/revision and
publishing. As Mrs. Jones teaches composition, which stage of the writing
process should be used to incorporate the ideas and process of linking?
Is it possible that linking is a new category within the writing process
or is a different process? How does this change the nature of writing and
composition? As her continuing reflections in a new notebook indicate,
the process of inquiry never ends.
Case study #1b provided an extensive set of professional skills for
the Internet, techniques for writing and problems for reflection. Additional
case studies will be developed at this site in the future. Now use CROP
to address your concerns and projects!
Pub: v1.0, 4/5/98; updated Sept. 17, 2000