|Communities Resolving Our Problems: the basic idea|
|[SUP: Sharing Problems]||[THINK: Guidance]||[LEAP: Solving Problems]|
|This table of comparison represents the model of higher order thinking chosen by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction in 1994. It is a collapsed version of Marzano's model of eight higher order thinking skills to seven. In the context of the larger CROP model, use these skills to guide and support the problem sharing and problem solving process. The bracketed and boldfaced headings in the left column are the five terms used by the prior NorthWest Labs model of thinking skills used in North Carolina from 1989 to 1994.|
|When content is new, students must be guided in relating the new knowledge
to what they already know, organizing and then using that new knowledge.
Knowledge can be of two types: Declarative (i.e., attributes, rules) or
procedural (skills and processes). Items of this type are factual and content-specific.
[See further definition, key action words, and examples of trigger questions for knowledge.]
|Organizing is used to arrange information so it can be understood.
This is a higher level way of expressing what Bloom referred to as comprehension.
|Applying||Applying requires demonstration of prior knowledge within a new situation.
Application is based on an individual's ability to apply previous learning
to a new or a novel situation without having to be shown how to use it.
The task is to bring together the appropriate information, generalization
or principles (declarative and procedural knowledge) that are required
to solve a problem.
[See further definition, key action words, and examples of trigger questions for applying.]
|Analyzing clarifies existing information by discovering and examining
|Generating constructs a framework of ideas that holds new and old information
together. The step of inference could also be seen as the first step of
what Bloom called synthesis or Marzano called integrating.
|Integrating||Integrating connects or combines prior knowledge and new information
to build new understandings. Bloom called this synthesis.
|Evaluating requires assessing the appropriateness and quality of ideas.
This is an adapted version that adds back in the level of application originally created by Bloom but dropped by Marzano, as well as taking 3 of Marzano's levels and collapsing them into the level of knowledge. Further, the boldfaced terms in the table above represent the five major concepts of the NorthWest Regional Labs reduced model of higher order thinking skills. In some case the terms are identical, and in other cases another term is used with similar meaning.
See the Marzano
bibliography for more.